Glaucoma is eye chronic disease when intraocular pressure (IOP) is raised and optic nerve is affected. In such a case vision darkens to the point of complete blindness. Blindness caused by glaucoma becomes irreversible, since optic nerve dies. In this case it is impossible to open eyes for a blind patient!
Unfortunately, glaucoma is a rather widespread disease. People of 40 years and upward mainly suffer from this disease. However, this illness can also involve young people (juvenile glaucoma), and even infants (congenital glaucoma).
Inheritance is very important in nascency of glaucoma. If your relatives had glaucoma, you should be especially vigilant and regularly examined by ophthalmologist. Medical examination by the ophthalmologist as well as intraocular pressure measurement at least once a year will highlight in due time hypertension;
- narrowing of field of vision;
- change of optic nerve.
Having any glaucoma form it is necessary to be regularly examined by oculist, to control intraocular pressure at least quarterly and to select with doctor's help the appropriate treatment.
Glaucoma progresses gradually and unnoticeable. Tangible signs become evident at that point of the disease development, when it is difficult to recover sight. Therefore, if you reveal at least some of the following symptoms, we recommend you to consult a doctor.
- Gradual narrowing of fields of vision, at first loss of peripheral, and then worsening of central vision.
- Temporary nascence of gray tog, appearance of halos around light sources.
- Sharp headache attacks after which the vision is beclouded. (Pain can appear either in the eye or in superciliary arch and temple).
- Eyeball reddening.
Glaucoma treatment can be therapeutic, surgical, laser and combined.
Pharmacotherapy of glaucoma is performed in three main directions:
- phthalmohypotensive therapy – currently has a wide armoury, used for lowering of intraocular pressure, different in composition, mechanisms of action and indications. They are chosen individually;
- therapy, contributing to better blood circulation of retina and optic nerve;
- therapy, aimed at normalization of metabolism in ocular tissues with the purpose of influence on dystrophic processes typical for glaucoma.
Laser treatment of glaucoma:
Laser interventions are safe, can be made on an outpatient basis, have exceptionally low invasiveness and therefore low probability of complications.
Laser iridotomy – is the laser procedure of forming the additional foramen in the iris on its periphery (at the radix) for the purpose of improvement of intraocular fluid circulation or prophylaxis of the block of fluid current per vias naturales. The final goal of the procedure – normal intraocular pressure. Formed artificial foramina in the iris have diameter of 0.5 mm, are unnoticeable and do not influence the visual acuity and quality. Formed foramina remain for life and do not cause discomfort. Laser iridotomy is the effective procedure of intraocular pressure reduction in case of distortion of the correct anatomic ratio of the eye anterior segment structures.
Laser trabeculoplasty involves application of series of burns on the trabecule inner surface. Such an impact improves the trabecular diaphragm penetrability for aqueous hydatoid, reduces the hazard of Schlemm's canal block. The mechanism of the operation action consists in intention and shortening of the trabecular diaphragm due to sclerostenosis in places of burns, as well as in widening of trabecular slits, located in the area amongst burns.
View of the angle of the anterior chamber after laser trabeculoplasty