The overwhelming number of people nowadays suffer of various refractive errors. In case of refraction pathologies, derangement of light refraction in the eye occurs and as a result the image does not focus directly on the retina. It means that a person with a refractive disorder cannot see surrounding objects clearly and distinctly and hence he/she requires some correction of vision. The main refractive errors are myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism.
Myopia or shortsightedness is a refractive error where light rays, which normally are to focus on the retina (emmetropia), focus in front of it. Traversed lines from focus reach the retina, in consequence of which the images from distant objects are blurry. Shortsightedness is the most commonly encountered refractive error in the world. Factors promoting the development of myopia can be long eye strain (especially in people who spend a lot of time in front of computer screen), noncompliance of visual regimen, eye anatomic features, hereditary background, stress, insufficient quantity of substances necessary for eye work.
People with shortsightedness should have regular checkups by an ophthalmologist. The doctor will find the reasons and prescribe the required myopia treatment, which will help prevent the disease progression.
Shortsightedness treatment includes the following methods:
- apparatus (laser biostimulation, training of accommodation reserves, computer programs)
- eyeglass and contact lens correction.
Apparatus treatment of shortsightedness is preventive and aimed at the progression delay.
From the ophthalmologist's manual:
Shortsightedness – myopia
Shortsightedness is such form of refraction where parallel rays coming to an eye converge in front of the retina. Visual acuity is always notably reduced in near-sighted people. There are circles of light scattering on the retina. In order to diminish them, myopes screw up their eyes. In doing so pupil size decreases, circles of light scattering grow smaller and visual acuity improves. Thus, the term «myopia» derives from Greek words «myo», which means «to screw up one's eyes» and «ops» meaning "gaze".
Myopes have to converge much. In this regard inner rectus muscles get tired very quickly. As a result a sense of discomfort appears in the frontal region of head and the eye area, which bears the name of muscular asthenopia.
Myopia of progressive form is a disease, whereas usual shortsightedness is a kind of refraction.
The beginning of shortsightedness development falls on school time, in other words on that period of life when organism grows and eyes endure a lot of stress. Therefore in order to prevent shortsightedness development it is necessary to pay great attention to vision hygiene and to provide preventive treatment of shortsightedness.
There are two types of myopia treatment: therapeutic and surgical.
Therapeutic treatment of shortsightedness includes a complex of preventive measures aimed at slowing down the advance of shortsightedness. During the organism growth shortsightedness progression is more common, therefore treatment of myopia should be provided very thoroughly in childhood and adolescence. Compulsory are prescriptions of rational correction, relief of cilliary muscle spasms and abolition of asthenopia conditions. Recommended are special exercises to train cilliary muscle – apparatus treatment of shortsightedness.
In case of high-degree complicated myopia in addition to the above mentioned recommended is general light regimen: physical strain (lifting loads, jumping and the like) and visual overload are excluded. Systemic medication and special therapy are prescribed.
One of the methods of shortsightedness treatment is eyeglass correction. In patients who do not wear glasses or wear incorrectly chosen glasses shortsightedness continues to progress.