Pathological conditions of the retina are rather diversified both in genesis, and in clinical aspects. Normal retina is completely transparent; only its vessels are seen in the process of ophthalmoscopic examination. Retinal disorders are characterized by diffuse opacification, formation of confined foci, changes of vessels, hemorrhaging and pigmentation.
In recent years one of the main reasons of low vision and blindness is retinal dystrophy.
Retinal dystrophy is a destructive disease, progressing as a result of metabolic disorder at the cellular level in different layers pf the retina. This disease is characterized by slow course and progressive decrement of visual functions. Retinal dystrophy is the result of vascular abnormalities such as idiopathic hypertensia, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors of the disease progress also include hereditary background, obesity, smoking, increased solar radiation, deficiency in certain vitamins and microelements, past viral diseases, emotional stress, ethnicity etc. Most often retinal dystrophy affects myopic people, however it can be found in practically sound people.
Central retinal dystrophy (macular dystrophy) at the present time is the key reason of irreversible decrement in visual acuity. Peripheral retinal dystrophy is the group of diseases showing different degenerative changes in the fundus peripheral parts.
Present-day treatment of retinal dystrophy has two main directions: conservative methods and laser methods of treatment. Conservative treatment of retinal dystrophy is directed at strengthening of retinal vessels or improving the metabolic processes in retinal tissues. Laser methods of treatment are aimed at preventive treatment of dystrophic foci, or localization of retinal holes and retinal detachment.
Therapeutic approach can be defined only by a qualified retina specialist. Retinal dystrophy treatment should be started immediately after establishing diagnosis.
The ophthalmological clinic SVIT ZORU provides conservative and laser treatment of retinal dystrophy. Laser coagulation consists in making the barriers in the form of several rows of laser coagulates, separating the dystrophic zones from more central parts of the ocular fundus. Laser treatment of retinal dystrophy is provided with the help of the diode laser with green wave length. The clinic is equipped with a modern laser photocoagulator OcuLight TX 532 of Iridex Company. Laser coagulation method offers the possibility of preventing up to 50% of complications, which can cause irretrievable loss of visual functions, retinal detachment including.
Retinal detachment is one of the most serious eye diseases, as it leads to catastrophic disorder of vision functions and requires a complicated operative therapy. Retinal detachment is characterized by separation in some segment of the eye ground of the sensory part of the retina from pigment epithelium. The opinion of many people that retinal detachment threatens only myopic patients is mistaken. The disease can occur in people with twenty-twenty vision, without any or with minimal premonitory symptoms.
The main aim of the retinal detachment treatment is to draw the bacillary layer nearer to the pigment epithelium and to form around the tear the area of adhesion of the retina with subjacent tissues. In an infant state retinal detachment can be most effectively treated by means of separating laser coagulation of the retina. As pathology progresses the retinal detachment treatment involves surgical interference.
Retinal detachment treatment should be forehanded, since if total retinal detachment occurs even surgical methods sometimes are ineffective. Retinal detachment treatment is performed on an outpatient basis, it is painless and safe.