Depending on the nosology eye surgery is performed on different structures of the eye:
- on eyelids (papillomas, atheromas, cystis, ptosis, epicanthus, chalazion etc.);
- on cornea (pterygium);
- on conjunctiva (dermoid cyst, pigmented naevus);
- on eye muscular system (strabismus);
- intraocular surgery (cataract, glaucoma);
- on posterior eye segment (retinal detachment).
Pursuant to the statistical data of the Medical Statistics Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine as to the cataract prevalence in Ukraine, the number of persons affected by cataracts in 2009-2010 was 541342 (1171.90 per 100 thousand of the population). The majority of cases of the revealed disease requires surgical intervention, in other words, eye surgery is the only and direct indication. The rest is the kind of immature cataract when preventive therapeutic treatment with periodic examinations and control of intraocular pressure are performed twice a year.
Eye surgery – these words often frighten patients and put them off the early cataract treatment. As of today, more correct and modern definition of the operative intervention is eye microsurgery. Eye microsurgery is performed using operational microscopes of fine precision and granularity, as well as microsurgical instruments. Owing to modern methods of treatment, high proficiency of cataract surgeons, accurate methods of analysis and highly professional equipment, eye microsurgery attained the outpatient surgery status. It helps patients to restore for a short time the lost functions of the ability to work. Cataract eye microsurgery – phacoemulsification – is one of the most modern methods of treatment in ophthalmology.
The question of cataract remains open, as the bulk of adult population is anxious of this disease. However, more complex and late diagnosed eye disorders exist, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy of amphiblestrodes, age-related macular degeneration, retinal perforation and detachment. In case of such conditions early diagnostics and correct tactics of treatment are required: therapeutic or laser eye surgery.
Laser eye surgery can be used and available in the period of immature cataract, when changes on the retina can be diagnosed through the structure of the eye-lens. In case of glaucoma, depending on its type, laser eye surgery is used: trabeculoplasty or posterior iridectomy.
As for the pediatric pathology – this is the eye surgery in case of strabismus, ptosis, congenital cataract, congenital glaucoma, different types of blepharopasty, congenital vascular nevi and other disorders.